The Paris Opera
The Management and Governance
of a Major Cultural Institution

A book written by Philippe Agid &
Jean-Claude Tarondeau


Find out more about the work: table of contents

Part 2. The decade 1994-2004

Chapter 5. Results

  • Constitution of a lyrical repertoire
  • Ballet, or the continuation of a tradition of excellence and the pursuit of eclectic scheduling
  • The audience growth meets expectations and predictions
  • Validity and limits of comparisons between the main opera houses in Paris, New York, Vienna and Munich
  • Economic control of operations improved relationship between Opera and the State administration

Chapter 6. The three financial fundamentals of the Paris Opera

  • The theatre "in operation"(the so called “théâtre en état de marche”)
  • The balance between variable resources (other than public) - variable costs
  • Investments funding

Chapter 7. Hugues Gall : The man and his leadership

  • Three founding decisions
  • The artistic director
  • The head of the house
  • The man
  • Key partnerships welcoming political and civil society leaders

Chapter 8. The balance of power between the state administration, opera management, permanent artists, technicians and employees

  • Key lines of the renewal
  • The balance between the State administartion and the Opera management: redistribution of roles that erases years of confusion
  • The governing bodies of the Paris Opera
  • Still sensitive relationship between management, staff and union representatives

Chapter 9. Explanations of improved economics

  • Improved productivity and economies of scale
  • Cost and time reductions in technical production
  • A repertoire that balances cost and quality

Chapter 10. Management of artistic activities

  • A balanced choice of lyrical and ballet shows
  • The balance between staging ambitions and financial/technical imposed constraints
  • An organization guided by an efficient production of each show
  • A constraining management of schedules
  • Management of guest artists
  • However the picture is not idyllic

Chapter 11. A new marketing strategy

  • An increased but not enlarged audience
  • Diversity of shows proposed
  • Diversity of sales channels
  • Targeted communication
  • New price dynamics
  • An attempt to conciliate different audiences
  • A dynamic marketing strategy

Chaptre 12. The organisation and staff management

  • The main operations of the Paris Opera - between traditions and improvements
  • Artistic production, the “raison d'être” of the Paris Opera
  • Stage organization revolution
  • Transformations are linked to technology and improved staff capabilities
  • Staff management
  • Manpower and wages policies: evolutions and management

Chapter 13. Conflicts and their management

  • The principal reasons for conflicts between 1995 and 2004
  • Management and unions conflicts: attitudes often ambivalent
  • The state administration faces contradictory preoccupations when conflicts occur
  • Two social crisis in 2000
  • Were the 1994-2004 conflicts irrevocable?